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hat Great Brittain with her Men of Warr, Fleets and Shiping, have had in all Ages, and in these latter Ages, as great Sucess at Seas as any people whatsoever in the Universe cannot modestly be denied in 88, overthrowing that Invincible Armado so long a preparing, and since other Navies also; and whose Armadoes, Navies, Armes, and Men, have been a Terrour to other nations; may her own Grand Magazins, are the very Granary from whence all His Sacred Majesties Kingdomes, Dominions, and Territories both in the East and West Indies, on this side and beyonid the Line, they have their whole and thorow supply of Shiping, Men, Armes, Food and Rayment, and more then can be, from any Kingdom of the Christian World. 

Now if Wood and Timber should decay still, and fail, the greatest Strength of Great Britain, her Ships, Mariners, Merchants, Fishings, and His Majesties Navies, and Men of War, for our Defence, and Offence would fail us, which before, and since 88 made his Sacred Majestyes Prodecessors, Queen Elizabeth, and her Great Council, the then Parliament, to make Lawes for the preservation of Wood and Timber, especially near any Navigable River; 1 Eliz. 15, 27  Eliz. 19. 28 Eliz. 3.5. 23 Eliz. 5. All which Laws, and others, for the Preservation of Wood and Timber are still in force, but not duly Executed; also King Iames His Sacred Majesties Grand-father, and Prince Henry for the Preservation of Wood and Timber in this Island, did in the 9th Year of His Reign, Grant His Letters Pattents of Priviledge unto Simon Sturtevant, Esq.; for 31 yenrs, for the makiug of Iron with Pit-cole and Sea- cole for the preservation of Wood and Timber of Great Brittain so greatly then consumed by Ironworks; This Invention was by King James’s command to be at large put in Print, which Book did contain near a quire of paper in quarto, called Simon Sturtevant His Metallica. Anno. 1612. May 22. Printed by George Eld, Cum Privllegio.

After Simon Sturtevant could not perform his making of Iron with Pit-cole or Sea-cole, according unto his Engagement, King Iames, and Prince Henry, caused him to render up his Pattent, and a new Pattent was Granted unto Iohn Rovenson, Esq. who also was Enjoyned to write a Book of his Inventions, called, Rovenson’s Mettallica. Printed for Thomas Thorp, Cum Privilegio: May 15. An. 1613.

After Iohn Rovenson, Esq. had often failed with his Inventions, and great undertakings, Gombleton, Esq. a Servant of Queen Ann’s, undertook (by Pattent) to perform the Invention of making of Iron with Pit-cole, and Sea-cole; but he being as confident of his Invention as others, did Erect his works at Lambeth, which the Author view’d; and Gumbleton failing, the Learned and Ingenious Doctor Iorden of Batsa, the Authors Acquaintance, and sundry others obtained Pattents for the making of Iron, and melting of Mines with Pit-cole aud Sea-cole, for the preservation of Wood and Timber all which Inventions and endeavours to Effect and Perfect the said. Works, have been by many hereto-fore well known, to have worthily attempted the said Invention, though with fruitless success.

Having seen many of their failings, I held it my Duty to endeavour, if it were possible to Effect and Perfect so laudable, and beneficial, and also so much desired Inventions, as the making of Iron into cast Works and Bars; and also the Melting, Extracting, Refining and Reducing all sorts of Mines, Minerals and Metals, with Pit-cole, Sea-cole, Peat, and Turf, for the preservation of wood and timber, so much exhausted hy Iron Works of late.

Having former knowledge and delight in Iron works of my Fathers, when I was but a Youth; afterwards at 20 years Old, was I fetched from Oxford, then of Bayliol Colledge, Anno 1619, to look and manage 3 Iron Works of my Fathers, 1 Furnace, and 2 Forges, in the Chase of Pensnet, in Worcester-shire, but Wood and Charcole, growing then scant, and Pit-coles, in great quantities abounding near the Furnace, did induce me to alter my Furnace, and to attempt by my new Invention, the making of Iron with Pit-cole, assuring my self in my Invention, the loss to me could not be greater then others, nor so great, although my success should prove fruitless; But I found such success at first tryal animated me, for at my tryal or blast, I made iron to profit with Pit-cole, and found Facere est addere Inventioni.

After I had made a second blast and tryal, the fesibility of making Iron with Pit-cole and Sea-cole, I found by my new Invention, the “quality to be good and profitable, but the quantity did not exceed above 3 Tuns per week: After I had brought my Invention unto some perfection, and profitable, doubted not in the future to have advanced my Invention, to make quantity also. 

Immediately after my second tryal, I wrote unto my Father what I had done, and withall, desired him to obtain a Pattent for it from King Iames of Blessed Memory; the Answer to which Letter I shall insert, only to shew the forwardness of King Iames, in this his much animating the Inventor, as he did both Simon Sturtevant, Iohn Rovenson, Doctor Iordanie and others; The Letter follows; 

      Son Dudley,

The Kings Majesty being at New-Market, I sent Parkes thither on Saturday to some Friends of mine, to move the King Majesty for my Pattent, which be coming on Sunday Morning, in the Afternoon His Majesty sent a Warrant to Master Atturney fo dispatch my Pattent, for the which I am infinitely bound unto His Hajesty, that it pleaed Him of His Great Grace and Eavour to dsepatch it so soon; I have been this night with Master Atturney, who will make hast for me; God Bless you, and Commend me unto all my Friends: 

March 10.
Your Loving Father,
                Edward Dudley.


This Richard Parke, à Parks-house Esq; in the Letter before mentioned, was the Authors Brother in Law, which did about l year after the Pattent was granted, carry for the Author much good Merchantable Iron unto the Tower, by King Iames’s command to be tryed by all Artista, and they did very well approve of the Iron, and the said Parkshouse had a fowling Gun there made of Pit-cole Iron, with his name gilt. upon the Gun, which gun was taken from him by Colonel Levison Governour of Dudley Castle, and never restored.

The said Richard Parkhouse’s son my Nepbew, Edward Parkshouse, the 5th. of Januray 1664. pressed me much to put Pen unto Paper, to shew what I have done in the invention of making of Iron with Pitcoale and Seacoal, not uknown unto this Country, and to my brother Folliott, Esq; and my Nephew Parkshouse Esq; and to my Kinsman Master- Francis Dingley, to whom I intend to leave the Secrets of my Inventions, notwithstanding all my sad sufferings from time to time this forty Years in the invention, my Sufferings in. the War, and my Estate sold for my Loyalty; and also my sad sufferings and obstructions since his Sacred Majesties happy Restauration many wayes; and also upon sundry and many references, at the Authors very great charge, pains, and time spent of Foure years in his aged dayes, for the general good, by his inventions for the preservation of Great Brittain’s Wood and Timber.

Now let me shew some Reasons that induced me to undertake these Inventions, after the many failings of others, well knowing that withing Ten miles of Dudley Castle there to be neer 20,000. Smith of all sorts, and many Iron works at that time, within that Circle decayed for want of Wood (yet formerly a mighty Woodland Country.)

Secondly, The Lord Dudley’s Woods and Works decayed, but Pitcoal and Iron, Stone or Mines abounding, upon his Lands, but of little Use. 

Thirdly, Because most of the Coale Mines in these parts, as well as upon the Lord Dudley’s lands, are Coals, Ten, Eleven, and Twelve yards thick; the top or the uppermost Cole, or vein, gotten upon the superficies of this Globe or Earth, in open works.

Fourthly, Under this great thickness of Coal, is very many sorts of Iron, Stone, Mines, in the Earth Clay or Stone earth, like bats in all four yards thick; also under these Iron mines is severall yards thick of Coals, but of these in an other place more convenient.

Fifthly, Knowing that when the Colliers are forced to sinck Pits for-getting of ten yards thick of Cole one third Part of the Coles or more, that be gotten under the ground, being small are of little or of no use in that inland Country nor is it worth the drawing out of the Pits, unlesse it might be made use of by making of Iron wherewith into cast works or Bars.

Sixthly, Then knowing that if there could be any use made of the- smal-coale that are of little Use, then would they be drawn out of the pits, which coles produceth often times great prejudice unto the Owners of the works and the work it self, and also unto the Colliers, who casting of the smalcoles together, which compelling necessity enforcing the Colliers so to do, for two causes; one is to raise them to cut down the ten yards thicknesse of coles drawing onely the bigger sort of cole, not regarding the lesser or small cole, which will bring no money; saying, He that liveth longest let him fetch fire further: Next, these Colliers must cast these coles, and sleck or drosse out of their wayes, which sulphurious small cole and crouded moyst sleck heat naturally, and kindles in the middle of those great heaps; often fals the cole-works on Fire, and flaming out of the Pits, and continue burning like Ætna in Cicily, or Hecla in the Indies.

Yet when these loose Sulphurious compost of cole and sleck, being consumed in processe of time, the Fire decayes, yet notwithstanding the Fire hath continued in some Pits many years; yet colliers have gotten coles again, in those same Pits, the Fire not penitrating the solid and firme wall of coles, because Pabulum ignis est Aer, the Ayre could not penetrate, but passe by it in the loose cole and sleck; for comming into those pits afterwards, I have beheld the very blows of Pikes or tools that got the coles there formerly. Also from these Sulphurious heaps, mixed with Iron, Stone (for out of many of the same pits is gotten much Iron, Stone, Mines; the fires heating vast quanties of Water, passing thorow these Soughs or Adits, becometh as hot as the Bath at Bathe, and more healing and sovereign even for old Ulcers and. Sores; because many of these Baths doe proceed not onely from common Sulphur and vitriol of Mars, but also from Solar sulphur in this Iron stone; I hope, Filii Artis, will excuse my digesion from the making of Iron with Pitcole, Seacole, Peat or Turf; and the melting of mines and mettals and refining of the same, with the like fuell: the first Pattent being granted by King James for 31, Years in the 19th year of his Reign upon just and true information, that the Authour had the year before made many Tuns of Iron with Pitcole at a Furnace or Iron-work, in the Chase of Pensnet, in the County of Worcester, besides cast Iron Works of sundry sorts with Pitcoles; and also at two Forges or Iron Mills, called, Cradly Forges, fined the said Iron iuto Merchantable good Bar Iron; But the year following, the grant or Pattent for making of Iron with Pitcole or Seacole, There was so great a Flood, by rain, to this day, called the great May-day-Flood, that it not onely ruinated the Authours Iron works, and inventions; but also many other mens Iron works: and. at a market Town called Sturbridge in Commitate Wigorniæ, although the Authour sent with speed to preserve the people from drowning; one resolute man was carried from the Bridge there in the day time, and the nether part of the Town was so deep in Water that the people had much ado to preserve their lives in the uppermost rooms in their Houses.

My Yron works and inventions thus demolished, to the joy of many Iron masters, whose works scaped the Flood and who had often disparaged the Authours Inventions, because the Authour sold good Iron cheaper then they could afford it; and which induced many of the Iron masters to complain unto King Iames, averring that the iron was not Merchantable; As soon as the Author had repaired his works and. inventions (to his no small charge) they so far prevailed with King Iames, that the Authour was commanded with all speed possible to send all sorts of Bar iron up to the Tower of London, fit for making of of musquets, Carbines and Iron for great Bolts, fit for Shipping, which Iron being so tryed by Artists and Smiths, that the iron masters and Iron-monger were all silenced until 21th of King Iames: At the then Parliament, all Monopolies were made Null, and diverse of the Iron-masters endeavouring to bring the invention of making Iron with Pitcole, Seacole, Peat and Turff, within the compasse of a Monopoly; but the Lord Dudley and the Authour did prevaile; yet the Pattent was limited to continue but Fourteen years; after which Act the Authour went on with his invention cheerfully, and made annually great store of Iron, good and merchantable, and sold it unto diverse men yet living, at Twelve pounds per tun. I also made all sorts of cast iron Wares, as Brewing-Cysterns, pots, Morters, and better and cheaper than any yet made in these Nations, with Charcoles; Some of which are extant to be seen by any man (at the Authors House in the City of Worcester) that desire to be satisfied of the truth in the Invention.

Afterwards, The Author was ousted of his works and inventions before mentioned by the Iron-masters and others wrongfully, over long to relate: yet being unwilling his Inventions (having undergone much charge and pains therein) should fall to the ground, and be buried in him, made him to set forward his Invention again, at a Furnace called, Himley Furnace in the County of Stafford, where he made much Iron with Pit-cole, but, wanting a Forge to make it into bars, was constrained for want of Forge to sell the Pig-Iron unto the Charcole Iron-masters, who disparaging much prejudice, not onely in detaining his stock, but also disparaging the Iron; Himley Furnace being Rented out unto Charcole Iron-Masters. 

The Authour Erected a new large Furnace on purpose, 27 foot square, all of stone for his new Invention, at a place called Hasco Bridge, in the parish of Sedgley, aud County of Stafford; the Bellows of which Furnace were larger then ordinary Bellows are, in which work he made 7 Tuns of Iron per week, the greatest quantity of Pit-cole-Iron that ever yet was made in Great Brittain; near which Furnace, the Author disovered many new Cole-mines 10 yards thick, and Iron-mine under it, according to other Cole-works; which Cole-works being brought unto perfection, the Author was by force thrown out of them, and the Bellows of his new Furnace and Invention, by riotous persons cut in pieces, to his no small prejudice, and loss of his Invention of making of Iron with Pit-cole, Sea-cole, &c. So that being with Law-Suites, and Riots, wearied and disabled to prosecute his Art and. Invention at present, even untill the first Pattent was extinct: Nothwithstanding the Author his sad. Sufferings, Imprisonments wrongfully for several thousand pound in the Counter in London, yet did obtaine a new Pattent, dated the 2d of May, Anno 14. Caroli Primi of ever Blessed Memory, not only for the making of Iron into cast-works, and bars, but also for the Melting, Extracting, Refing and Reducing of all Mines, Minerals and. Mettals, with Pit-cole, Sea-cole, Peat, and Turf, for the preservation of Wood and Timber of this Island; into which Pattent, the Author, for the better support and management of his Invention, so much opposed formerly at the Court, at the Parliament, and at the Law, took in David Ramasey, Esquire, Resident at the Court; Sir George Horsey, at the Parliament; Roger Foulke, Esquire, a Counsellour of the Temple, and an Ingenious Man; and also an Iron Master, my Neighbour, and one who did well know my former Sufferings, and what I had done in the Invention of making of Iron with Pit-cole, &c. 

All which said. Patentees, Articled the 11th of Iune following, the Grant not only to pay the Authour all the charges of passing the Pattent laid down by him, but also to lay in for a common and joynt-stock each man of the four, one hundred pounds, and so from time to time, what more stock any three of the Pattentees should think fit to be laid in for the making of Iron into cast works and bars, and likewise for the melting, Extracting, Refining and Reducing of all Mines, Minerals, and Metals, with Pit-cole, Sea-cole, Peat and Turf, which Articles are yet, extant.

Now let me without offence insert the opposition we all had, by means of powerfull Iron-Masters, with Sir Philibeard Vernat, a Dutch Man, and Captain Whitmore, who pretended much unto his late Sacred Majesty, but performed not their undertaking, which caused the Author, and his Partners thus to Petition.

To the King’s Most Excellent Majesty

The Humble Petition of Sir George Horsey Knight; David Ramsey, Roger Foulke, and Dud Dudley, Esquires: 

Humbly Sheweth,
That whereas Your Petitioners being called before the Right Honourable, the Lord Keeper by your Majesties Appointment, touching the making of Iron with Pit-cole, Sea-cole, Peat, and Turf, for which they have Your Majesties Pattent; and seeing that Sir Philibeard Vernat, and Captain Whitmore, who are not Inventors, have obtained a Pattent also for the same; yet before their Pattent Granted, Sir Philibeard was ordered at Council-board, according to his Great Undertaking, to perfect his Great Undertaking and Invention within Two yeas, and there hath been near Three Years passed, and yet have made little or no Iron: still he Opposeth Your Petitioners, and doth neither benefit himself, but hinders Your Majesty, and the Kingdom.

The reference unto the Petition followeth; At the Court at Greenwich, May 20, 1638. His Majesty is pleased to refer this Petition to Master Atturney, and Master Solicitor General, to call the Petitioners before them, and to compose the differences between them; (if they can) or otherwise, to certifie his Majesty their opinions therein:

Sir Sidney Mountegue was then
Master of the Requests. 

But Sir Philibeard Vernat and Captain Whitmore never appeared any more for their Invention.

Not long after the Wars came on, and caused my partners to desist, since which they are all dead, but the Author, and his Estate (for his Loyalty unto his late Sacred Majesty) and Master, (as by the Additional Act of Parliament may appear) was totally sold.

Yet nevertheless, I still endeavoured not to bury my Tallent, took in two Partners into my inventions, Walter Stevens of Bristow Linnen Draper, and John Ston of the same City Merchant, after the Authour had begun to Erect a new work for the Inventions aforesaid, near Bristow, Anno 51, and there we three Partners had in stock near 700l... but they not only cunningly drew me into Bond, entered upon my Stock and Work, unto this day detained it, but also did unjustly enter Staple Actions in Bristow of great value against me, because I was of the Kings Party; unto the great prejudice of my Inventions and Proceedings, my Pattent being then almost extinct: for which, and my Stock, am I forced to Sue them in Chancery. 

In the interim of my proceedings, Cromwell, and the then Parliament, granted a pattent, and an Act of Parliament unto Captain Buck of Hampton Road for the making of Iron with Pit-cole and Sea-cole; Cromwell, and many of his officers were Partners, as Major Wildman and others; many Doctors of Physick, and Merchants, who set up diverse and sundry Works, and Furnaces at a vast charge, in the Forrest of Dean, and after they had spent much in their Invention aud Experiments, which was done in spacious Wind furnaces, and also in Potts of Glass-House Clay; and failing afterwards, got unto them an Ingenious Glass-Maker, Master Edward Dagney an Italian then living in Bristow, who after he had made many Potts, for that purpose went with them into the Forrest of Dean, and built for the said Captain Buck and his Partners, a new Furnace, and made therein many and sundry Experiments and Tryals for the making of Iron with Pit-cole and Sea-cole, &c. But he failing, and his Potts being all broken, he did return to Britow frustrate of his Expectation; but further promising to come again, and make more Experiments; at which time Master John Williams, Master Dagneys, Master of the Glass-House was then drawn in to be a Partner for 300l. deposited, and most of it spent, the said Williams and Dagney hearing that the Authour had knowledge to the making of Iron with Pit-cole, Sea-cole, &c. they from Cap Buck, and the other Partners importuned the Author, who was at that time in great danger by the Parliament, (being a Colonel of the Kings Party) to go along with them into the Forrest of Dean, which at that time durst not deny; Coming thither, I observed their manner of working, and found it impossible, that the said Eward Dagney by his Invention should make any Iron with Pit-cole or Sea-cole, in Pots to profit: I continued with them till all their Potts and Inventions failed; at every Dinner and Supper, Captain Buck, Captain Robins, Doctor Ivie, Doctor Fowler and others, would aske the Author why be was so confident that Iron in quantity could not be made by their new Inventions ? I found it a difficult thing to disswade the Partners from their way, so confident were they to perform the making of iron with Pit-cole or Sea-cole to profit; that they desired me to come again a second time into the Forrest to see it Effected; But at that time, I saw their failings also.

Yet nevertheless Captain Buck, and his Partners Erected new Works at the City of Bristow, in which they did fail as much as in their former Inventions; but Major Wildsmun, more barbarous to me then a Wildman, (although a Minister bought the Authors Estate, near 200l. per Annum, intending to compell from the Author his Inventions of making of Iron with Pit-cole; but afterwards passed my Estate unto two Barbarous Brokers of London, that pulled, down the Authors two Mantion Houses; sold 500 Timber Trees off his Land, and to this day are his Houses unrepaired.

Anno 1665. Captain Buck and his Partners wearied of their Invention, desisting, An. 1656. Captain John Copley from Cromwell obtained another Pattent for the making of Iron with Pit-cole and Sea-cole; He and his Partners set up their Works, at the Cole-Works near Bristow, and endeavour’d by Engeneers assistance to get his Bellows to be blown, at, or near the Pits of Cole, with which Engines the Work could not be performed: But the Author coming to see the said Works, and after many Discourses with Captain Copley, his former Acquaintance, told him plainly, if his Bellows could have been blown by those engines, yet I feared he could not make Iron with Pit-cole or Sea-cole; he seemed discontented; whereupon, and without those Engines I made his Bellows to be blown feisibly, as by the Note under his hand appears (the first Note) followeth; 

1656. December 30. 

Memorandum, The day and year above-written, I John Copley of  London, Gent. Do acknowoledge, that after the Expence of diverse Hundred Pounds to Engineers, for the making of my Bellows to blow, for the making of Iron with Pit-cole or Sea-cole near Bristow, and near the Forrest of Kings-wood; that Dud Dudley Esq. did perform the blowing of the said Bellows at the Works or Pits aforsaid; a very feisible and plausible way, that one man may blow them with pleasure the space of an hour or two; and this I do acknowledge to be performed, with very small charge, and without any money paid to him for the same Invention: 

John Copley.

Captain John Copley thus failing in his Inventions, An. 1657, he went into Ireland, and all men now desisting from the Inventions of making of Iron with Pit-cole and Sea-cole: The Author, Anno 1660. being 61. years of Age, and moved with pitty, and seeing no man able to perform the Mastery of making of Iron with Pit-cole or Sea-cole, immediately upon his Sacred Majesties happy Restauration, the same day he Landed, Petitioned that he might be restored to his place, and his Pattent obstructed, revived for the making of Iron with Pit-cole, Sea-cole, Peat and Turf, into cast Works and Bars, and for the Melting, Extracting, Refining and Reducing of all Mines, Mettals and Minerals, with Pit-cole, Sea-cole Peat and Turf; which said Laudable Invention, the Author was and is unwilling should fall to the ground and dye with him, neither is the Mistery, or Mastery of the Invention Effected and Perfected by any man known unto the Authour, as yet, either in England, Scotland or Wales; all which three abound with Pit-cole or Sea-cole, and do over-much furnish other Kingdomes many with Pit-cole and Sea-cole, when they might make far better use of it themselves, especially Scotland and Wales, both for the making of Iron into cast Works and Bars; and also for the making of Steel, and Melting, Extracting, and Refining of Lead, Tin, Iron, Gold, Copper, Quicksilver, and Silver, with Pit-cole, and Sea-cole.

I shall not trouble you with the Petition, or my reasons and desires that were annexed unto it, for the making of Iron, and Melting of Mines, &c. with Pit-cole, &c. they are over long to relate, only the Reference to them is thus; (after my first Petition was lost, I Petitioned again.) 

At the Court at Whiteh. 22. of June 1663.

His Majesty is graciously pleased to refer the consideration of this Petition to Master Atturney, and Solicitor General, or to either of them, together with the Petitioners Reasons and Desires hereunto annexed; and they, or either of them, are to inform, and certifie His Mjeasty, what they, or either of them in their Judgements respectively conceive fit for His Majesty to do concerning the Petitioners Humble Request, and then His Majesty will declare his further pleasure. 

Robert Mason,
Master of Requests.

After Master Atturney, and Sollicitor General wou1d do nothing upon the Reference; the Author Petitioned His Sacred Majesty sitting at the Council-Board, for the Renewing of his Pattent for the making Iron, and Melting, of Mines with Pit-cole, Sea-cole, often obstructed; the reference to that petition followeth.

At the Court at Whitehall, July 25. 1660. 

Upon reading of a Petition this day at the Board, being the same in terminis with this above-written, which his Majesty was graciously pleased by a Reference under the hand of Doctor Mason, one of the Masters of the Requests, to refer to the consideration of Master Atturney, and Master Solicitor General, together with the Petitioners Reasons and Desires there- unto annexed, to the Consideration of the Lords, and others Commissioners for the Treasury, who upon Examination of the particulars, are to give such order thereupon, as they shall find most proper for His Majesties Service. 

Sir Edward Walker was
Clark to the Council, and 
Garter King at Armes.

The Author, during the Lords Commissioners their time, could get no Order upon his Reference; But his Petition was left, with the now Right Honourable, the Lord Treasurer, to take or grant further order therein, but the Author hath gotten hitherto no order.

Therefore compelling necessity doth constrain (having prosecuted his Petition hitherto) him to desist, from his Inventions, in which he hath taken more pains, care and charge, than any man, to perfect his new Invention in these Kingdomes. Although the Author had not as yet so fully perfected or raised his invention, to the quantity of Charcole Iron Furnaces, yet the Authors quantity being but seven Tuns per week at the most, together with the quality of his Iron made with Pit-cole and Sea-cole, hath the most eminent Triplicity of lron of all that can be desired in any new Invention. 

1. More Suffcient.   2. More Cheap.  3. More excellent.

Upon which triplicity, the Authour might enlarge himself, but shall not be tedious, only give me leave to mention that; there be three sorts of Cast Iron; 

1. The first sort is Gray Iron. 

2. The second sort is called Motley Iron, of which one part of the Sowes or Piggs is gray, the other part is white intermixt.

3. The third sort is called white Iron, this is almost as white as Bell-Mettle, but in the Furnace is least fined, and the most Terrestrial; of the three, the Motley Iron is somewhat rnore fined, but the Gray Iron, is most fined, and more sufficient to make Bar-Iron with, and tough Iron to make Ordnance, or any Cast Vessels, being it is more fined in the Furnace, and more malliable and tough, then the other two sorts before mentioned; and of this sort, is the Iron made with Pit-cole, Sea-cole for the most part, and therefore more sufficiently to be preferred 

2. More cheaper Iron there cannot be made, for the Author did sell pigg or cast Iron made with Pit-cole at four pounds per Tun, many Tuns in the twentieth year of King James, with good profit; of late Charcole Pig-iron hath been sold at six pounds per Tun, yea at seven pouds per Tun hath much been sold.

Also the Authour did sell Bar-iron Good and Merchantable, at twelve pounds per Tun, and under, but since Bar-iron hath been sold for the most part ever since at 15l. 16l. 17l. and 18l... per Tun, by Charcole Iron-Masters.

3. More excellent for diverse Reasons, and principally, being the meanes whereby the Wood and Timber of this Island almost exhausted may be timely preserved yet, and vegetate and grow again unto his former wanted cheapness, for the maintenance of Navigation, which is tbe greatest Strength of Great Brittain, whose Defence and Offence for all the Territories that belong unto it, next under God and his Vice-Gerent, our Sacred Majesties Cares, consists most of Shiping, Men of War, Experienced Mariners, Ordnances, Ammunition, and Stores, the Ordnance made therewith will be more gray and tough, therefore more serviceable at Sea and Land, and the Bar-iron will wall, rivet, and hold better than most commonly Charcole Iron.

2. More Excellent, not onely in respect the Invention of making of Iron with Pit-cole and Sea-cole will preserve Wood and Timber of Great Brittain so greatly consumed by Iron-Works of late.

But also in respect, this my Invention will preserve many Millions of Tuns of Small-cole in Great Brittain, which will be lost in time to come, as formerly they were, for within ten miles of Dudley Castle, is annually consumed four or five thousand Tuns at least of small Pit-cole, and have been so consumed time out of mind under ground, fit to have it made Pit-iron with; which coles are and (unless Iron be made therewith) will be for ever totally and annually lost; if four or five thousand Tun of Cole be consumed within ten miles compase, what Coles is thus consumed in all England, Scotland, and Wales ? which is no good Husbandry for Great Brittain, hinc ille lacrime, that our Timber is exhausted.

Must I still be opposed, and never enjoy my Inventions, nor Great Brittain the Benefit ?

Must my Pattent be obstructed in Peace, as it was extinct by the Wars?

And must not my Pattent be Revived for the making of Iron with Pit-cole, Sea-cole, Peat, and Turf, but find Enemies still to oppose it ?

How many thousand Tuns of Iron might have been made but since my first Invention, An. Jacob. 18th by my means with Pit-cole, and Sea-cole (lost) if I had not had Enemies; and had not wood and timber been preserved ?

But most men will aver, that it doth concern the Author to Demonstrate the great losse mentioned formerly of Pit-cole annually; 

It is thus,

There is at least within ten miles of the Castle of Dudley, twelve or fourteen Cole-Works, some in Worcester, and some of them in Stafford-shire (now in work, and twice as many in that Circute not in work) each of which Works get two thousand Tun of Cole yearly, some get three, four or five thousand Tun of Coles yearly: and the uppermost or top measures of Coles are ten, eleven, and some twelve yards thick; the Coles Ascending, Basseting, or as the Colliers term it, Cropping up even unto the superfices of the Earth, and there the Colliers formerly got the Coles; but where the Coles is deep and but little Earth upon the measures of Coles, there the Colliers rid off the Earth, and dig the Coles under their feet; these Works are called Foot-rids.

But of these Works there are now but few, some of these small Coles in these open Works, the poor people did carry away, but paid nothing for them in former times. Termed the Brain carriages. 

But now the Colliers working more in the deep of these Works, they are constrained to sink Pits, some of which Pits are from eight unto twenty yards deep, and some are near twenty fathome deep, which fathome contains two yards.

In these Pits, after you have made or hit the uppermost measures of Cole, and sink or digged thorow them, the Colliers getting the nethermost part of the Coles first about two yards in height or more, and when they have wrought the Crutes or Staules, (as some Colliers call them) as broad and as far in under the ground, as they think fit, they throw the small Coles (fit to make Iron) out of their way on heaps to raise them up so high, to stand upon, that they may, with the working of their Picks or Maundrills over their heads, and at the one end of the Coles so far in as their Tool will permit, and so high as their working cometh unto a parting in the measure of Cole, the which Coles, to the parting by his self clogging and pondrous weight, fall often many Tuns of coles, many yards high dlown at once; with which fall and the Colliers breaking of the said Cole, many small coles do so abouud of no use, and fit for no sale; that in getting of twenty thousand Tuns of Pit-cole, one half near is small cole, not drawn out of the Pits, but destroyed, left, and lost; which small cole, with the sleck thrown moyst, together, (heat the sooner) and by means of its sulphurousness fire in the Pits, to no small prejudice unto the Owners of the Works, aud the Workmen, besides Great Brittains Loss; which Cole might have made many thousand Tuns of Iron, and also have preserved this Islands Woods and Timber: I might here give you the names, and partly the nature of every measure, or parting of each cole lying upon each other; the three uppermost, measures are called the white measures for his white Arcenical, Salsuginus and Sulphurious substance which is in that Cole; the next measure, is the shoulder-cole, the toe-cole, the foot-cole, the yard-cole, the sliper-cole, the sawyer-cole, and the frisly-cole, these last three coles are the best for the making of Iron, yet other coles may be made use of. 

I might give you other names of coles, but desire not prolixity, yet must I tell you of supernumerary number of Smiths within ten miles of these Cole-Works near twenty thousand; yet God of his Infinite goodness (if we will but take notice of his goodness unto this Nation) hath made this Country a, very Granary for the supplying these Men with Iron, Cole, and Lime made with cole, which hath much supplyed these men with Corn also of late, and from these men, a great part not only of this Island, but also of his Majesties other Kingdomes and Territories with Iron wares have their supply, and wood in these parts almost exhausted, although it were of late a mighty wood-land Country. 

Now if the Coles and Iron-stone so abounding were made right use of, we need not want Iron as we do; for very many measures of iron-stone are placed together under the great ten yards thickness of cole, and upon another thickness of coles two yards thick, not yet mentioned, called the bottom-cole, or the heathen cole, as if God had decreed the time when, and how these Smiths should be supplyed, and this Island also with Iron, and most especially, that this coal and iron-stone, should give the first, and just occasion for the invention of the making of iron with pit-cole, no place being as fit for the invention to be perfected in, then this Country, for the general good; whose Woods did formerly abound in Forrests, Chases, Parks and. Woods, but exhausted in these parts. 

Now for the names of the iron-stone, the first measure is called the Black-row-graines, lying in very hard and black Earth. 

The second measure is the Dun-row-graines, lying in dun earth or clay.

The third measure is called the white row grains, lying in very white Earth or Clay; under these three measure are sundry other measure, and are called, first, the Rider Stone; secondly, the Cloud Stone; thirdly, the bottom Stone ’, fourthly, the Cannock or Cannotstone, which last may well be so caled (although all the other measures be very good) yet this Stone is so Sulphurous and Terrestrial, not fit to make Iron; because the Iron thereof made is very Redshare, which is that if a workman should Draw or Forge out a Share mould fit for a Plough in that red heat, it would crack and not be fit for the Use of the Husbandmans Plough or Share. I may take occasion here to speak of the Nature of Coldshare Iron, which is so brittle if made of the grain Oare or Iron stone would be almost as brittle as some Regulus Antimonii made Iron, for with one small blow over an Anvil you may break the biggest Bar that is, if it be perfect coldshare Iron; nay the Plough-man often breaks his Share point off if it be made of coldshare Iron. But perfect tough malliable Iron will not break feisibly in hot-heat or cold, as coldshare will, or red hot as Sulphurious veneriated red-share Iron will; but yet tough enough when it is cold: All which aforesaid qualities of Iron the Authour very well knoweth how to mend their Natures, by finning or setting the finery, lesse transhaw, more borrow which are terms of art, and by altering aud pitching the works, and plates the fore spirit-plat, the tuiron, bottome, back and breast or fore-plate, by the altering of which much may be done, if the work be set transhaw and transiring from the blast, the Iron is more coldshare lesse Fined, more to the Masters profit; lesse profitable to him that makes it into mauufactorage, and less profitable to him that useth it; but the Iron made in a Burrow work, becometh more tough and serviceable; yet the nature of all Iron stone, is to be considered, both in the Furnace, and in the finery, that the Sulphurious Arceniall and Veneriating qualities which are often-times in Iron stone be made to separate, in both the works from the fixed and fixing bodies of Iron, whose fiery quality is such, that he will sooner self calfne than separate from any Sulphurious veneriated quality. 

No man, I hope, need to be offended at any terms of Art, it hath been alwayes lawfull for Authours of new Arts and Inventions, at their own pleasures, to give name to their new Inventions and Arts, every Tradesman is allowed it in his mystery. 

But the Authour hath as much as he could avoided the terms of Art that Simon Sturtenante and others have used, which are very many: onely the Author hath given you the common names and terms (for the most part) which are so common among Forge-men and Founders, as is nothing more common; but kept secret amongst them and a mystery not yet known, but unto very few Owners of Iron-works; nay I have not yet troubled your memory with any of the Founder terms, of but making his harth as the Timpe stones, the Wind-wall stones, the Furion stones, the Botton-stone, the Back-stones and the boshes, in the making and pitching of which harth is much of the Mystery.

I must confesse, there is given unto some Phylosophers, etc filii Artis, some few terms how the Sulphurious, Arsenicall, Bituminos, Antimoniall, Venerial, and otherpoysnous qualities, either in the Pit-cole, Sea-cole, or the Iron-stone, may be in part at the furnace separated, and not permitted to incorporate in the Iron, and if it be incorporated, yet by Fining at the Forge, to fetch it out; also to melt extract, refine, and reduce all mines mettals and minerals, unto their species with Pit-cole, Sea-cole, Peat, and Turff, by ways not yet in use, which the Authour will make known, here-after, if God permit him health, time and space, or leave his knowledge unto his Brother Aylmore Folliott, Esq; his Nephew Parkshouse, Esq; and to his Kinsman Master Francis Dingley, to declare unto this latter Age of the World, in which God is pleased to manifest many of his Secrets; Qui vult secreta scire, secreta serete sciat custodire.

Having suffered much, ever since the Year 1618. unto this present, for the general good, as by the preceding discourse appears for the making of Iron with Pitcole, Sea-cole, Peat, and Turf; for the preservation of Wood & Timber of Great Brittain so much exhausted, for future prevention of which, 

Is first, to permit, the Authour to enjoy His Pattent, and fully to perfect his said Inventions (obstructed in the Reign both of King James and in the Reign of his Sacred Majesty King Charles the First, of ever Blessed Memory; and lately since his most Sacred Majesties happy Restauration) who desires nothing but to be animated with the Patent revived according unto the Statute of 21 Iacob. For Inventors. 

Secondly, to impower the Authour or any other Agents to take care that no Pit-cole, or Sea-cole be any wayes wilfully destroyed under ground. 

Thirdly, To put all former good Laws in Execution, and to make others for the preservation of Wood and Timber of these Nations, especially neer Navigable River or Seas. 

Fourthly, Seeing there goeth out of England, Scotland, and Wales, many thousand Tuns Annually of Pitcole and Seacoles to furnish France, and also the Smiths thereof Spaine, Portugal and Flanders, and especially the Smiths thereof; the Low-Countries and the Smiths thereof, besides the Hollanders carries great quanties of our Coles unto Foreigne parts, without which those Countries cannot subsist: Now the Authors desire is, that where there is a conveniency of Iron stone or Ewre, the Coles may not be transported (paying His Sacred Majesties Duty) until Order from His Majesty or his Privy Couucil. 

Fifthly, That no Pitcole be Exported, seeing that Wool fuell and Timber is decayed for Buildings, and instead thereof Brickmaking (formerly spending Wood, but now coles) is much in use; also is Glasse now made with cole, but formerly were there many Thousand Loads of Wood fuell spent in the making thereof, and the Glass Inventio with Pitcole was first effected near the Authours Dwwelling. 

Sixthly, Making of Steel, Brewings, making of Coppras, Allum, Salt, casting of Brasse aod Copper, Dyings, and many other Works were not many years since done altogether with the Fuell of Wood and Charcole; instead whereof, Pitcole, and Seacole is now used as Effectually, and to a far better use and Purpose; besides the preservation of Wood and Timber. 

Seventhly, That which is somewhat neerer the mark and Invention; the Blacksmith forged all his Iron with Charcole, and. in some places where they are cheap, they continue this course still, but small Pitcole and Seacole, and also Peat and Turf hath and doth serve the turn as well and sufficiently as Charcole. 

Eighthly, That which is nearest, and my perfect Invention, and neer the Authours Dwelling, called Greens-lodge, there are four Forges, namely, Greens-forge, Swin-forge, Heath-forge and Cradley-forge.

Which Four Forges have Barred all or most part of their Iron with Pit-cole ever since the Authours first Invention, 1618. which hath preserved much Wood: In these Four, besides many other Forges do the like; yet the Author hath had no benefit thereby to this present. 

Yet by this Barring of Iron with Pitcole 80000 loads of Wood and more have been preserved for the general good, which otherwayes must have been had and consumed. 

Symon Sturtevant, in his Metallica, in the Epistle to the Reader, saith, That there was then Anno 12. Jacobi in England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales 800 Furnaces, Forges, or Iron Mills making Iron with Charcole:  Now we may suppose at least 300 of these to be Furnaces, and 500 to be Forges; and each Furnace making fifteen Tun per week of Pig or cast Iron, and work or blow but Forty week per Annum, but some Furnaces make Twenty Tuns of Pig Iron per Week, and two Loads of Charcole or there about, go to the making of a Tun of Pig Iron: And two Loads (or two cords) of Wood, at the least, go to the making of a load of Charcole.

Now what Loads of Wood or Charcole is spent in great Brittain and Ireland Annually ? but in one Furnace, that makes Fifteen Tun per Week of Pig-Iron for Forty weeks: I shall give you the Table, and leave you to judge of the rest of the Furnaces.

Charcole Wood
15. Tun per week spends of 30  loads 60  loads
Per Annum 40 weeks it spends 1200  1oads 2400  1oads

Also for one forge that Makes Three Tuns of Bar Iron weekly for Fifty weeks, but some Forges make double my Proportion, and spend to Fine and Bar out each Tun three Loads of Coles: To each Tun.

Charcole Wood
3 tuns per week 9  loads 18  loads
Per Annum 450  1oads 900  1oads

By these Examples, may you see, the vast quantities of Charcole, or Wood, that the 800 Furnacis spend weekly, or yearly, and the 500. Forges workings all the year, spend little lesse then the Furnaces: It being impossible, after this rate for great Brittain or Ireland, to supply these her works with Charcole in Fining of Iron at the Fineries, yet the Forges that need but half the Charcole may be permitted to use Charcole, and may be supplyed with under Woods. 

Let us but look back unto the making of Iron, by our Ancestors, in foot blasts, or bloomenies, that was by men treading of the Bellows, by which way they could make but one little lump or bloom of Iron in a day, not 100 weight, and that not fusible, nor fined or malliable, until it were long burned and wrought under Hammers, and whose slag or more Iron, then in that day the workman or bloomer got out, which Slag, Scorius, or Sinder is by our Founders at Furnaces wrought again, and found to contain much Yron and easier of Fusion than any Yron stone or Mine of Yron whatsoever of which slag and Sinders, there is in many Countryes Millions of Tuns and Oaks growing upon them, very old and rotten.

The next invention was to set up the Bloomeries that went by water, for the ease of the men treading the bellows, which being bigger, and the waterwheel causing a, greater blast, did not onely make a greater quantity of iron, but also extracted more iron out of the slag or sinder, and left them more poorer of iron then the foot-blasts, so that the Founders cannot melt them again, as they do the foot blast sinders to profit: Yet these Bloomeries by water (not altogether out of use) do make in one day but two hundred pound weight of iron, or there abouts neither is it fusible, or malliable, but is unfined untill, it be much burned, and wrought a second time in fire.

But some of the now going Furnaces with Charcole, do make two or three Tun of Pigg or cast iron in 24 hours. 

Therefore I do not wholly compute the vast quantities of charcoles and wood spent in, these voragious works, which quantity of cast iron, with pit cole and Sea-cole, at one Furnace I desire not, but am contented with half the proportion, which once I attained unto before my Bellows were riotously cut, that is one Tun in 24 hours; we need not a, greater quantity, if the like quantity were made in Furnaces in Scotland, and Wales, which abounds with Pit-cole and Sea-cole, as well as England; and our supernumery Smiths, Founders, and Forgemen, and other Tradesmen might, be there imployed, thereby to furnish His Majesties Plantations, as well, if not better then England, where Coles are far cheaper then in England. 

Although vast quantities of Coles do abound near the Authors dwelling, yet twenty thousand Smiths or Naylors at the least dwelling near these parts, and taking of Prentices, have made their Trade so bad, that many of them are ready to starve and steal; so that it is wished there were some courses taken to mend their Trade, imploy them in other parts, or permit them, not to take so many Prentices, all which have great occasions to use Pit-cole, and had not these parts abounded with cole, it would have been a great deal worse with them then it is; but of the cole there is, nor will be any want, nor of iron-stone.

The manner of the cole-veins, or measures in these parts, and also of the measures of iron-stone, or mines, how they lye, be, or increase, some veins lye circuler, some semi-circuler, some ovall, some works almost in a direct line, and some works parts of a, Circle; as by the Circle, it being onely for a small Example to judge the rest of the Mines by may appear.